Relationship between Substance Abuse and Personality

Relationship between Substance Abuse and Personality

admin / January 27, 2019

I. Annotated bibliography.

Mercer, Deanna, Douglass, Alan B., Links, Paul S. (2009). Meta-Analyses of Mood Stabilizers, Antidepressants and Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: Effectiveness for Depression and Anger Symptoms. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(2), 156-174.

The research implemented by Mercer et al. (2009) aimed at defining whether mood stabilizers, antidepressants and antipsychotics are effective for treating anger and depression in patients with borderline personality disorder. The present study was based on the surveys which present validated data.

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Mercer et al. (2009) reported that mood stabilizers (except divalproic acid and carbamazepine) had quite considerable impact on anger reduction. Antidepressants had smaller, quite sparing, effect on both anger and depression reduction whereas antipsychotics had a moderate impact on anger reduction, and did not affected depression.

However, Mercer et al (2009) pointed out that their survey did not cover the data of the impact of such substances on patients with alcohol or substance abuse and self-harm behavior.

Aharonovich, Efrat, Nguyen, Hueco T., Nunes, Edward V. (2001). Anger and Depressive States among Treatment-Seeking Drug Abusers: Testing the Psychopharmacological Specificity Hypothesis. The American Journal on Addictions, 10(4), 327-334.

Aharonovich et al. (2001) researched whether specific type of drugs caused specific disorders in patients with these substances abuse. The researches assumed that due to their different pharmacological properties such drugs as opiates, cocaine, cannabis can produce different effects on abusers’ behavior. The changes in behavior of sixty participants (50 men and 10 women) were studied. Aharonovich et al. (2001) found that the patients’ behavior can be characterized by increased anger and depression. However, the researchers did not reported about the correlation between the type of drugs and precise change in behavior. Though, the survey scored some elevated depression in opiate abusers and elevated anger in cocaine addicts, these data are insignificant to define the correlation between drugs and behavior deviation.

Fox, Helen C., Hong, Kwang-lk A., Siedlarz, Kristen, Sinha, Rajita. (2008). Enhanced Sensitivity to Stress and Drug/Alcohol Craving in Abstinent Cocaine-Dependent Individuals Compared to Social Drinkers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(4), 796-805.

Fox et al. (2008) surveyed whether there were changes in stress response and craving in patients with substance abuse and patients with alcohol abuse. The behavior of forty people of the former group and forty people of the latter were examined. The participants’ respond to the imaginary stressful and more relaxing situations was observed. The researchers reported that drug abusers are more vulnerable to stress and craving than alcohol abusers. The alcohol addicts revealed considerably moderate response to stress. Thus, the survey suggested that drug addicts’ recovery could be hindered by their increased sensitivity to stress and craving.

Mulvey, Edward P., Odgers, Candice, Skeem, Jennifer, Gardner, William, Schubert, Carol, Lidz, Charles. Substance Use and Community Violence: A Test of the Relation at the Daily Level. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 743-754.

Mulvey et al. (2006) researched the correlation between the substance (alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, etc.) abuse and violence in patience. The researchers concluded that the use of such substances leads to the increased likelihood of violence. The survey justified that the patients with mental disorders (at a high risk of violent behavior) who took substances like alcohol or drugs revealed increased amount of violent in the following days. The researchers also consider the implications of the use of such substances.

Bond, Alyson J., Verheyden, Suzanne L., Wingrove, Janet, Curran, H. Valerie. (2004). Angry Cognitive Bias, Trait Aggression and Impulsivity in Substance Users. Psychopharmacology, 171(3), 331-339.

Bond et al (2004) surveyed the correlation between substance abuse (and abuse for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), in particular) and aggressive behavior. The participants of the research were addicts who took the drugs recently, abusers who did not take drugs for a year, and non-abusers.

The participants had to process biased short stories with a key sentence revealing aggression or anger. The researchers concluded that people who took drugs were faster to process aggression biased passages which revealed that they were characterized by angry cognitive bias. Besides, the researchers did not obtain the evidence of particular impact of MDMA. Thus, the Bond et al. (2004) concluded that drug abusers reveal the presence of angry cognitive biased.

II. Relationship between substance abuse and personality.

A. The latest findings on the problem.

The implication of substance abuse is being extensively surveyed nowadays. Researchers report about the changes of behavior and even personality in substance abusers. Such addicts are characterized by more aggressive behavior and more sensitivity to depression and stress.

Various surveys suggest that drug addicts start playing more active role in the social life, they become distant and even indifferent to the world around them. The main concern of such people is their craving to drugs or alcohol. It is necessary to point out that drug abusers are more stressful and aggressive than alcohol addicts. Moreover, drug abusers’ recovery is much more hampered by such behavior changes as aggression, depression, anger and hyper-sensitivity to stress.

B. Difference substances cause the same effect.

It is necessary to add that there can be no such notion as safer drugs or less harmful alcohol abuse. Different pharmacological peculiarities of such substances as cocaine, amphetamine, marijuana, etc. lead to the same consequences: the change of personality.

Of course, apart from psychological deviations any drug abuse can lead to numerous health problems. Any substance abuse affects such important systems as endocrine vascular.

C. The risk group – adolescent drug abusers.

It is essential to point out that substance abuse in adolescents is even more dangerous since the organism is still growing and is more subjected to various factors. There can be no surprise that adolescent drug abusers are more subjected to the changes in behavior. Aggression, violence or depression can affect greatly the development of personality. Thus, the use of drugs is unacceptable for people of all ages, but especially for adolescents.

D. Conclusion.

In conclusion, it is possible to note that drug abuse causes severe changes in behavior (or even change of personality), and various serious health problems, irrespective of drugs pharmacological peculiarities. It is also necessary to point out that the drug abuse in young people leads to more serious mental and other health problems.

Reference

Aharonovich, Efrat, Nguyen, Hueco T., Nunes, Edward V. (2001). Anger and Depressive States among Treatment-Seeking Drug Abusers: Testing the Psychopharmacological Specificity Hypothesis. The American Journal on Addictions, 10(4), 327-334.

Bond, Alyson J., Verheyden, Suzanne L., Wingrove, Janet, Curran, H. Valerie. (2004). Angry Cognitive Bias, Trait Aggression and Impulsivity in Substance Users. Psychopharmacology, 171(3), 331-339.

Fox, Helen C., Hong, Kwang-lk A., Siedlarz, Kristen, Sinha, Rajita. (2008). Enhanced Sensitivity to Stress and Drug/Alcohol Craving in Abstinent Cocaine-Dependent Individuals Compared to Social Drinkers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(4), 796-805.

Mercer, Deanna, Douglass, Alan B., Links, Paul S.. (2009). Meta-Analyses of Mood Stabilizers, Antidepressants and Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: Effectiveness for Depression and Anger Symptoms. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(2), 156-174.

Mulvey, Edward P., Odgers, Candice, Skeem, Jennifer, Gardner, William, Schubert, Carol, Lidz, Charles. Substance Use and Community Violence: A Test of the Relation at the Daily Level. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 743-754.

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